Antibiotics in Manure: Threat to Soil and Human Health
Keywords:Antibiotics, Antibiotic resistance gene, Health, Manure
The last century has seen a global growth in the usage of antibiotics, and this trend is expected to continue. The increased level of antibiotic resistance in soils is a result of the misuse of veterinary antibiotics in animal husbandry and the ensuing manure applications to the land. Over half of the veterinary antibiotics that are taken are excreted in the environment, accounting for approximately 58% of the total. As a result, animal manures and soil treated with manures can contain antibiotic concentrations up to mg L-1, as well as a broad range and frequency of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). As a result, worries about these compounds' ability to find their way into human food and endanger human health have been expressed.
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