Autophagy: Versatility and Essentiality in Cellular Homeostasis and Beyond

Authors

  • Berryish Metha C. Dept. of Plant Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (641 003), India
  • Eniya A. Dept. of Agricultural Entomology, Centre for Plant Protection Studies, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (641 003), India
  • Samuel P. Dept. of Plant Biotechnology, Centre for Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu (641 003), India

Keywords:

Autophagy machinery, Autophagosome, Programmed cell death, Plant-virus interactions

Abstract

Autophagy, governed by autophagy-related genes (ATGs), is essential for cellular homeostasis. It impacts diverse cellular functions, including development, reproduction, metabolism, hormone signaling, cell death, senescence, and stress responses. The article delves into macro-autophagy, micro-autophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), emphasizing cargo specificity. Bulk autophagy engulfs cellular constituents indiscriminately, while selective autophagy targets specific proteins or organelles. In plants, stress-induced selective autophagy involves regulators like BES1 and TSPO. The intricate machinery of macro-autophagy in plants, driven by ATG proteins, participates in lipid transfer, phagophore formation, and autophagosome-vacuole fusion. Initiation mechanisms, including ATG9 vesicles, ATG2-ATG18 complexes, and phosphatidylinositol synthase-enriched ER subdomains, are explored. The review scrutinizes autophagy's role in virus infection, emphasizing its protective function against cell death and its dual impact on anti-viral and pro-viral responses. Silencing ATG genes compromise plant immunity, while certain viruses exploit autophagy for infection. Understanding autophagy's regulation informs therapeutic interventions and agricultural applications, highlighting its versatility and essentiality.

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Published

2024-01-25

How to Cite

[1]
C., B.M. et al. 2024. Autophagy: Versatility and Essentiality in Cellular Homeostasis and Beyond. Biotica Research Today. 6, 1 (Jan. 2024), 30–32.

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