Autophagy: Versatility and Essentiality in Cellular Homeostasis and Beyond
Keywords:Autophagy machinery, Autophagosome, Programmed cell death, Plant-virus interactions
Autophagy, governed by autophagy-related genes (ATGs), is essential for cellular homeostasis. It impacts diverse cellular functions, including development, reproduction, metabolism, hormone signaling, cell death, senescence, and stress responses. The article delves into macro-autophagy, micro-autophagy, and chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), emphasizing cargo specificity. Bulk autophagy engulfs cellular constituents indiscriminately, while selective autophagy targets specific proteins or organelles. In plants, stress-induced selective autophagy involves regulators like BES1 and TSPO. The intricate machinery of macro-autophagy in plants, driven by ATG proteins, participates in lipid transfer, phagophore formation, and autophagosome-vacuole fusion. Initiation mechanisms, including ATG9 vesicles, ATG2-ATG18 complexes, and phosphatidylinositol synthase-enriched ER subdomains, are explored. The review scrutinizes autophagy's role in virus infection, emphasizing its protective function against cell death and its dual impact on anti-viral and pro-viral responses. Silencing ATG genes compromise plant immunity, while certain viruses exploit autophagy for infection. Understanding autophagy's regulation informs therapeutic interventions and agricultural applications, highlighting its versatility and essentiality.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2024 Biotica Research Today
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.