Biological Carbon Capture through Algae
Keywords:Carbon dioxide, Carbonic Anhydrase (CA), Carbon Capture, Microalgae
Global climate change poses a critical threat, with carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels increasing by 2.7% annually in the last decade. To counter this alarming trend, a promising worldwide strategy involves capturing and storing CO2, notably through carbon capture and storage (CCS) initiatives. Photosynthesis, particularly by microalgae, emerges as a sustainable approach for CO2 removal due to their exceptional carbon-fixing abilities. Cyanobacteria and algae have developed unique photosynthetic carbon-concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) that optimize the efficiency of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase (RuBisCO) in capturing carbon dioxide. In this process, carbonic anhydrase (CA), a zinc-containing enzyme, plays a pivotal role within the CCM by facilitating the reversible hydration of CO2 into bicarbonate and a proton, significantly contributing to CO2 fixation. The microalgal biomass, post-sequestration, holds potential for producing biofuel, colorants, vitamins, bioactive compounds and livestock fodder.
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